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The abstract gives an overview of the project goals at a glance. Fine dust particles are ubiquitous on Viteză dating cambridge b bar and constitute a pontential hazard for future maned missions.

A technology based on plasma jet for cleaning and removing dust from all types of surfaces, including those of tools or small equipments and even space suits, is proposed.

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Experiments and simulations will be carried out to evaluate the impact of plasma jet on microparticles made of different materials and the efficiency of dust removal from surfaces in a mixture of low pressure viteză dating cambridge b bar containing CO2.

Atomistilor nr. Dust is freely blown away by strong winds at the surface of the planet.

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These microparticles can range in size from a fraction of a micron to several tens or hundreds of microns while their composition is predominantly silicate mineral. Considering the thin atmosphere of Mars these particles are subjected to ionizing radiations coming from the sun. Also mechanical factors such as friction during powerful storms contribute to their electrical charging.

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Any future planed space mission to Mars will have to mitigate the risks produced by this ubiquituous electricaly charged dust. Dust is a hazard for a manned mission for several reasons: it can block the bearings, joints and movable parts of tools or machines, it can wear off the fabric of space suits, and last but not least it can be a potential treat for human health by inhalation if it is present inside the human habitat.

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A technology based on pulsed plasma jet for cleaning and removing dust from all types of surfaces including those of tools or small equipments, space suits, etc is being proposed. A plasma jet is produced in a coaxial gun which consists of two metallic electrodes, an inner center rod and an outer cylindrical envelope connected to a high voltage power source. The coax gun works in the mtorr range therefore it will be able to take advantage of the low pressure of Mars atmosphere.

The discharge is triggered by the application of the high voltage on the electrodes. The gas inside the coaxial gun becomes ionized and a large current flows between the gun electrodes.

The Lorenz force acting on the electrons and ions ejects them with speeds of several kilometers per seconds. The drag force associated with the plasma flow can remove dust from surfaces, including those with some level of rugosity.

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Experiments and simulations will be carried out to evaluate viteză dating cambridge b bar impact of plasma jet on microparticles made of different chemical compounds and to infer the efficiency of dust removal from surfaces in low pressure gases. Our main goal is to produce a small experimental model based on a coaxial gun which will be optimized for the conditions of Mars atmosphere. We can confidently assert that the technology rediness level TRL of the coaxial gun is situated at level 3 and our aim is to take it to the next stage of development, i.

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Concept and objectives: Explain the concept of the project. Emphasise the original, novelty and innovative nature of the project. Present expected results and describe the project end products. Dust on Mars and the problems it poses The major issue the Apollo astronauts pointed viteză dating cambridge b bar was dust, dust, dust, said Professor Larry Taylor, Director of the Planetary Geosciences Institute at dating format fata University of Tennessee about the Apollo Moon missions of The fine powder present on the Moon surface which due to intense UV and electron irradiation from the sun and outer space was electrostatically charged has created aparently unforesson problems to the astronauts of Appolo missions.

The dust stuck to their space suits, helmets, gloves and apparently it was carried inside the lunar module provoking the so called lunar hayfever. The dust was so abrasive that it wore through the boots of one of the astronaut.

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The problem of dust has been brought even more into the spotlight in the dawn of future manned mission to Mars.

In [1] it is stressed that the chemical composition of Martian dust can become toxic and affects the lung in a similar way coal dust is experienced by miners.

In a published study about the effects of electrostatic charging of the Pathfinder Sojourner rover it is shown evidence of strong wheel wear due to friction with the abrasive dust [2].

The thickness of several metals strips attached onto the wheel surface datând în datoria made of aluminium, nickel and platinum were monitored during the mission. It was found the the aluminum stripe was most affected and from these results details about the hardness and average size of Martian dust câte zile dating calculator inferred.

The problem of dust is a more general one and it affects any space mission. According to Washington Post it seemed that astronauts aboard the ISS spent a lot of time making sure that the instruments, filters and surfaces are clean from dust. From an apparently minor issue dust in outer space has become unexpectedly a major concern.

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This knowledge has come by direct experience; no one knew ahead of the lunar missions that dust will be such a hassle for the mission operation. It appears that for future manned missions on Mars the search for ways to mitigate this problem are of paramount importance.

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A few tehnical solutions were proposed by NASA that will be discussed in the next sections. Atmosphere on Mars and dust composition Mars atmosphere is a rarefied gas composed of Compared to Earth s air pressure at its sea level of torr this is rather in a vacuum state or better said a low pressure atmosphere.

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Note also the low level of oxygen in the composition; CO2 is the predominant gas found in molecular state. It has been found by Mars rovers that dust composition is mainly silicate mineral composed in part of ferric minerals like Fe 2 O 3 [4].

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The coarser grains may contin a greater percentage of a less oxidized component, like pyroxene. The average dust radius has been found to be 1.

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Strong dust storms and dust devils are responsible for dust transport. The tinniest dust particles with a diameter of 1 µm can be found at all heights, up to 20 km in altitude, thus filling up the thin Mars atmosphere.

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Another important aspect is the charging of dust present in Mars atmosphere. Dust is electrostatically charged due to bombardment by the cosmic radiation and from the UV light emitted by the sun.

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Another mechanism of charging is the mechanical friction during giant dust storms which are quite common on Mars. Highly charged dust particles with a size of few microns are easily airborne in the atmosphere and are proned to stick to surfaces.

Project objectives In this context we propose a novel technology based on plasma jet for dust removal from surfaces in low pressure conditions similar to those on Mars. The mechanism is the wind force of the plasma jet which pushes the dust particles and entrains them out of the surface, leaving the surface clean. The main goals of the project are the following: Realization of an experimental model of a coaxial plasma gun for dust removal Realization of a simulation model of the coaxial gun system Demonstrate the feasibility of the experimental model at low pressure, in conditions similar to the Martian atmosphere.

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Electrical Discharges in low pressure gases An electrical discharge or plasma is established in a low pressure gas when a fraction of viteză dating cambridge b bar gas becomes ionized.